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American Association for Adult & Continuing Education

Commission for International Adult Education (CIAE)

2016 International Pre Conference Papers



  1. Mousa Alfaifi (
    Self-Directed Learning Readiness among Undergraduate Students in Saudi Arabia

    This study aimed to determine the level of self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) among undergraduate students at Saudi Electronic University in Saudi Arabia. Also, it investigated if there are relationships between the level of self-directed learning readiness and selected demographic variables such as gender, college, and age in the sample of undergraduate students in Saudi Arabia. This research utilized a quantitative design, specifically, descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. It also utilized the Self-directed Learning Readiness Scale SDLRS, which was developed by Guglielmino (1977).

    Results for question one found that total SDLRS scores among undergraduate students at Saudi Electronic University on Riyadh campus ranged from 132 to 279 with a mean score of 213.60, a standard deviation of 25.26. The results of this study show that: undergraduate students at Saudi Electronic University on Riyadh campus have average level of SDLRS; there was no significant result between the level of SDLRS and the selected demographic variable of gender and age. Also, there was a statistically significant difference in the mean of SDLRS regarding the independent variable of college. The result of Tukey post-hoc test indicated that the existence of significant differences at the .05 level between the students in the Administration and Finance College who scored higher than students in the Sciences and Theoretical Studies College. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between the students in the Computation and Information College who scored higher than the students in the Sciences and Theoretical Studies College.

  2. Iva Angelova (
    Career Transitions and Professional Development of Immigrants in the United States

    ABSTRACT: This paper presents some of the findings from a larger qualitative research study that explored the work experiences of Bulgarian immigrants in the Chicagoland area. The immigrants in this study expressed their motivations for career changes. The Bulgarian immigrant experiences of their transitions included changing job(s) and occupation(s) and going back to school. During the first couple of years after their arrival in the U.S., the Bulgarian immigrants were employed mainly in low-skilled labor. With respect to their professional development, the Bulgarian immigrants considered learning new skills and updating knowledge by taking courses, taking tests and exams, obtaining certificates, and participating in training as steps for advancement in their careers in their host country. The Bulgarian immigrants successfully adapted over time by improving their English language skills, continuing their education, and learning and fulfilling requirements in the local labor market so they could eventually obtain the more high-skilled jobs they desired.

  3. Kiran  Badwal (
    Preserving the Social Cohesiveness and Lifelong Learning Mission of Scotland’s Public Libraries: Evaluating the Scottish National Library Strategy through the Capabilities Approach

    ABSTRACT: The paper is based on my master’s degree thesis written as a graduate student at the University of Glasgow from 2014-2015 titled, “Preserving the Social Cohesiveness and Lifelong Educational Mission of Public Libraries in Times of Austerity: Assessing the Potential of the Scottish National Library Strategy through the Capabilities Approach.” The purpose of my research was to understand how austerity policies have weakened and compromised the public library service in Scotland.  In June 2015, the first Scottish national library strategy for public libraries was issued.  Entitled, Ambition & Opportunity: A Strategy for Public Libraries in Scotland 2015-2020, was released as a policy response to ongoing austerity cuts in public services from the UK government.  It sought to define the role of public libraries as essential, valuable, community resources.

    My research was a literature based analysis of the new strategy using Martha Nussbaum’s interpretation of the Capabilities Approach as a theoretical framework in which to examine and evaluate the policy’s strategic aims and recommendations.  In carrying out my research, I identified those central capabilities which I thought best corresponded to each of the strategic aims outlined in the Scottish national library strategy.  Also, I used various examples of public library programs and initiatives (in Scotland and elsewhere) to help illustrate the links between the strategic aims and central capabilities.  Throughout my analysis, I define public libraries as a vital community and social service that provides lifelong learning opportunities, social and community cohesion, adult and family literacy, and other innumerable benefits to the communities they serve.  Through the process of researching and writing my thesis, I found that the Capabilities Approach can be useful in helping Scottish public libraries realize the mission and goals of the national strategy.

  4. Muhittin Cavusoglu (
    Factors Associated with International Students' Academic Performance: A Comparative Analysis between the First Semester and the Current Semester in the U.S.

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify differences that impact international student performance in the first semester compared to the current semester and find out their motivational tools. This qualitative study focused on the factors associated with international students' academic performance between the first semester and their current semester in the U.S. For the purpose of this study, a 30-minute interview was given to international graduate students from the USF Tampa and Sarasota campus. In total, 19 international graduate students were interviewed from a variety of ethnicities and from the College of Education and College of Hospitality and Tourism Leadership. In their first semester, international students are motivated by having a degree in U.S., passion to study in their academic field in the U.S., family expectations, and government scholarship/G.A. responsibilities. However, they have problems with language, social environment/culture shock, homesickness, financial problems and public transportation in their first semester. A majority of the international students successfully deal with the main problems (language, culture shock and transportation); however, homesickness and financial issues are still major concerns for them. More financial support would bring more success to international students. International students who earn under $20,000 report a negative effect on their overall academic performance due to financial stressors, while those who earn $20,000 or more do not report a negative academic performance effect due to financial strain. Therefore, for best academic performance, over $20,000 should be allotted to each international student per year.

  5. Valeriana Colon (
    International Student Participant in U.S. Post Secondary English Language Programs

    Postsecondary English language education is a growing industry in the United States. While there has been considerable research on international student mobility in higher education, there is limited research on the population’s participation in U.S. English language programs (ELPs). The exploratory study examined the change in the number of U.S. postsecondary ELPs; characteristics of international student participation in U.S. postsecondary ELPs; international student enrollment in U.S. postsecondary ELPs compared to completion; and international student participation in U.S. postsecondary ELPs compared to higher education enrollment from 2004-2014. The study applied existing theories to better understand postsecondary English language program participation, and creates a foundation for future studies. Data were collected from archival sources and analyzed through quantitative methods.

  6. Arthur Conroy (
    The Visual Language of Abstract Shapes in Crossing Borders

    The Visual Language of Abstract Shapes in Crossing the Chasm of Cultural Borders describes a novel protocol for harmonizing adult learning prior knowledge concepts across cultural boundaries.

  7. Phyllis Cummins (
    Training Programs for Older Adults in the U.S.: Country Comparisons Using PIAAC Data

    Historically, older and lower-skilled adults in the U.S. have participated in Adult Education and Training (AET) at lower rates than other groups, possibly because of perceived lack of return on investment due to the time required to recover training costs. Global, knowledge based economies have increased the importance of lifelong learning for all age groups. This presentation will report the results of a study that used data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) to examine the relationship in the U.S. between participation in AET programs and employment, labor force participation, and income, for adults aged 45 to 65. In addition, comparisons were made for outcomes of AET participation in the U.S. with those in Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the U.K. Consistent with U.S. outcomes, comparison countries had lower AET participation rates by the unemployed compared to the employed and there were wide variations in AET participation between the lowest income quintile and the highest income quintile. For all countries, there was a significant relationship between AET participation and income. There was also a significant relationship between AET participation and labor force participation.

  8. Brittany  Davis (
    Joellen Coryell

    The Power of Relationship Building in International Short-Term Field Study Experiences at the Graduate Level

    This presentation derives from a 10-day cross-cultural field study experience held in Italy in which 10 graduate students from master and doctoral levels in adult education participated. During group reflections, several students who participated in the field study expressed the value of learning through personal connections made with fellow students as well as the instructor during the study. This relationship aspect of the short-term cross-cultural learning experience has only been briefly discussed in research. The research was framed by situated learning, and communities of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991), with an emphasis on the relationships built in practice and analysis of the collective resources, tools, and stories which are shared and utilized among the group (Coryell, 2013). Interviews with the students as well as their blogs to the class were analyzed to provide evidence of the benefits of interpersonal relationships to deepen learning in adult study abroad. By the conclusion of the presentation conference participants will have learned of and discussed the benefits of personal relationships developed during field study experiences, vivid personal accounts from the learners, and ways to encourage these relationships to develop during international field study experiences in formal education programs.

  9. Simeon Edosomwan (
    Claudette Peterson (
    Theory into Practice: The power of storytelling in Adult Learning and Instruction

    ABSTRACT: A poplar Eurocentric slogan in early 19th century was that Africa was a salvage continent devoid of culture before the arrival of Europeans in the continent. To debunk this Eurocentric narrative, the Commonwealth award winning literature, Things Fall Apart (1958), by the late Nigerian English professor Chinua Achebe provided animated stories, and dialogue of life and culture in pre-historic eastern Nigeria employing storytelling as an approach to establish that the continent was not devoid of culture; rather, Africa was a home of culture and this approach did reignite with many. Things Fall Apart, a popular example of African literature that has contributed to the literary world because of its authenticity in traditional stories and animated essays, provides historical information using storytelling narratives in helping its readers learn about life and culture in pre-historic African societies before the invasion of Europeans. Adult learners who otherwise did not know much about life before colonialism in Africa can have some clear information through the stories in Things Fall Apart. Similarly, the more current novel Americanah (2013) by Nigerian author Chimamanda Ngoze Adiche, allows a view into the world of Nigerians who emigrated to London and the U.S. Therefore, this paper explains the process and power of using storytelling in adult education as a useful instructional approach in facilitating adult instruction and learning. Building on the conceptual foundation of stories in Things Fall Apart and Americanah as conceptual frameworks to applying storytelling in adult instruction and learning context.

  10. Emmanuel Jean Francois (
    Strategic Planning for Internationalization in Adult and Higher Education in Questions

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the presentation is to outline a conceptual framework that can inform effective planning for internationalization in adult and higher education. Best possible strategic planning practices can help ensure the implementation of systematic and sustainable initiatives, which help meet expectations and strengthen institutional viability.

  11. Antonella Pascali
    My Experience and Reflections After Working at the Center for Refugees of Conetta, Italy

    ABSTRACT: During the years 2014 and 2015, the Mediterranean Sea has been unceasingly a theatre of a huge migratory flow. Only in these two years, more than 32,.000 persons have left their countries for a long journey with the hope of finding a place to live with dignity. Once arrived on the Italian costs, immigrants are distributed in different regions of Italy where they are given hospitality in refugee reception centers. From November 2015 to April 2016, I worked in the refugee center of Conetta, a small village in the Venice area, north east of Italy. The center is one of the biggest in the country and gives shelter to more than 500 men coming from the sub-Saharan countries of Africa, and the Asian countries of Afghanistan and Bangladesh. My work there was to manage all the health issues of the guests, give a first aid in case of emergency, educate them on hygienic habits, and provide them with assistance when they received the cares of the National Health Service available in the territory. Based on my experience, I am going to explain the different aspects of my work and present some considerations on the phenomenon of immigration in Italy.

  12. Wendy Griswold (
    Sustainability Adult Education: Learning to Re-Create the World

    ABSTRACT: No crisis is as great as the environmental predicament we face. Globally, humans everywhere now confront problems of extreme weather, waste disposal, pollution, overpopulation, massive forest depletion, access to clean water, the depletion of natural resources, the destruction of natural habitats, and changes in the chemistry of the world’s oceans. These ecological changes warrant our attention as global adult educators. Worldwide, adults will need to develop new ways of living. They will need to develop ecological intelligence and forms of eco-literacy that will support them in forging new patterns of sustainable life. Sustainability adult education is learning that helps prepare us to re-create the world to address current and future challenges through the development of new solutions and new ways of being. This presentation explores the contested concepts of sustainability and sustainability adult education, with respect to the global perspectives they embody.

  13. John Henschke (
    Influential Perspectives from Recent Aquisitions Regarding Andragogy: A 2016 shortened version

    Continuing with the research in andragogy for the 17th year [2016] yields exciting insights into some very influential writings that have escaped my notice until now. These include but are not limited to: Relating to comparing the complementary relationship between andragogy and self-directed learning; gaining insight on how andragogy relates to adult basic and literacy education; reflecting on and remembering the strong ties between the emergence of andragogy connecting back into ancient times before the term [andragogy] had been coined or its initial meaning was articulated in published form; being so deeply connected with the person/self; being used to turn some persons from being somewhat pessimistic in life toward their developing and acquiring a winning attitude and way of life; its reaching into the realm of providing possible infrastructure for restructuring organizations, communities and nations; providing a quiet path of development for pulling together people’s lives from different countries across the globe -- just to name a few. Although only 80 documents are included from a pool of more than 500, this research grows and expands one's mind and life; especially the researcher, but also the one who may pause to read, and spend time to delve deeply into this cogent topic in the would-wide field of adult learning and education, in addition to lifelong and lifewide learning.

  14. Yvonne Hunter-Johnson (
    Against All Odds: Social and Cultural Influence on Nontraditional International Learners Pursuing Higher Education in the United States

    ABSTRACT: Within more recent years, many international nontraditional students migrate to the United States of America to pursue higher education while temporarily disconnecting themselves from support systems such as family and friends, cultural norms, unified religious beliefs, a familiar educational system, racial and ethnical similarity and a quality of life they have become accustomed and expose themselves to an unfamiliar terrain of a social and cultural metamorphosis which can be an inhibitor to the learning process. On this premise, this qualitative study explored the sociocultural and educational experiences of international nontraditional adult learners pursing higher education in the United States of America. Emphasis was placed on how social and cultural differences influenced the learning process, challenges encountered while pursuing higher education and strategies for successful completion despite the odds of social and cultural difference. Data were collected utilizing semi structure interviews of 10 international students who represented the Caribbean, Asia, Africa, and The Middle East. All of the participants were born and raised within their respective countries but travelled to The United States to pursue higher education as a nontraditional adult learner. The study results were intriguing and provide a foundational platform for current and future international adult learners.

  15. Yvonne Hunter-Johnson (
    Norrisa Newton (
    Studying Abroad Has Transformed Me: Exploring The Learning Experiences of Bahamian Students Studying Abroad

    Within recent years, there has been a trend of Bahamian students (traditional and nontraditional) travelling abroad, more particularly to the United States, with the view of pursuing higher education at both the graduate and undergraduate levels. Among the most popular influential factors to obtain higher education internationally are government and private scholarships, international exposure and experience, professional development, and a quality of education that could not have been obtained locally. Despite the accelerant that ignited the desire for travel, most students are not prepared for the vast social and cultural difference in the educational system. However international students are resilient, adapt and are successful, which often results in them transforming as individuals. This qualitative study examined the effects of U.S. based education on Bahamian students, from the perspective of the transformational learning theory. Emphasis was placed on the extent to which these students’ international learning experiences transformed them into scholars of positive social change within their respective fields of study. Data were collected utilizing semi structure interviews of 8 Bahamian students. The study results provide a foundational platform for current and future Bahamian adult learners pursuing higher education in The United States.

  16. Jie Ke (
    Rui Kang (
    Di Liu (
    Designing Professional Learning Community through Understanding the Beliefs of Learning

    This study was designed to initiate building professional development learning communities for pre-service math teachers through revealing those teachers’ conceptions/beliefs of students’ learning and their own learning in China. It looked into Chinese preservice math teachers’ conceptions of student learning and their related pedagogical beliefs with respect to the following four aspects: self-regulation, construction of knowledge, the social nature of learning, and a dynamic view of ability. A total of 129 middle-school and secondary preservice math teachers from China participated in this study. The results showed that the Chinese preservice teachers’ conceptions of student learning and their pedagogical beliefs are constructivist, process-oriented, and progressive. But their views of students’ ability to self-regulate learning were more mixed and more traditional. In addition, the traditional Chinese socio-cultural values still have an impact on the pre-service teachers’ conceptions of student learning. Implications and recommendations for designing meaningful and effective teacher professional development programs aligned with Chinese mathematics education reform are also discussed.

  17. Cameron Kiosoglous (
    Olympic Sport Coaching Education: An international perspective

    ABSTRACT: The professionalization of sports coaching may have made some significant strides forwards in recent years but hiring coaches dates back to the mid-19th century. The Yale Rowing team hired William Wood in 1864 as the first intercollegiate coach in the US to help them beat its rival Harvard (Dealy, 1990). This presentation will explore what coaches need to know and do to excel as a high performance coach at the professional and Olympic levels of sport. Understanding the context that one is coaching in is not unique to high performance coaching, but defining the context at the highest level is differentiated by the level of complexity that comes with professionalization of the sport.

  18. Arthur McCrory (
    Waynne James (
    An Examination of Global Leadership Competencies in Selected Adult Education Graduate Programs

    This study explored the connection between the phenomenon of global leadership competency development, identified by Bird’s (2013) framework of nested global leadership competencies, in seven selected adult education graduate programs in the United States and Western Europe. The questions that guided this study explored (a) which of the competencies were addressed in the selected adult education graduate programs, (b) which ones were perceived to be most and less important, (c) which curricular and co-curricular practices were identified in the development of these competencies, and (d) what were the similarities and differences between the adult education graduate programs located geographically in the United States and those located in Western Europe. Findings indicated all of the global leadership competencies were addressed across all seven cases, to varying levels of extent. The competencies of (a) valuing people, (b) inquisitiveness, (c) leading change, and (d) vision and strategic thinking emerged as most important. Multiple curricular and co-curricular themes emerged as best practices to facilitate development of the global leadership competencies. Similarities across all cases included a focus on student-centered learning, while differences were primarily associated with the independent foci of the adult education graduate programs.

  19. Chukwudi  Mensah (
    The Role of Library Resources in Teaching and Learning among Adult Education University Students in Nigeria

    ABSTRACT: Library is the bedrock and backbone of every institution. It is the physical manifestation of the core values and activities of academic life. A well-established academic library is essential for any academic institution. As a focal point for teaching, learning and research, it is expected to provide standard information resources. As observed by Campbell (2006) “numerous creative and useful services have evolved within academic libraries in the digital age; Providing quality learning space, creating metadata, offering virtual reference services, teaching information literacy, choosing resources and managing resources licenses, collecting and digitizing archival materials and maintaining digital repositories”. Academic libraries presently are faced not only with the decision on what books, and journals to acquire for teaching and learning to satisfy faculty and students but also on how to remain relevant in the digital era. The paper discusses the role of library resources in teaching and learning among adult education university students in Nigeria and the nature of resources available for teaching and learning.

  20. Linda Morris (
    Adult Development: A Global Imperative

    ABSTRACT: As individuals and adult educators we consistently face an array of what seem to be increasingly complex challenges. These run the gamut from battling poverty and illness and their deleterious and deadly effects, to acquiring literacy and workplace competencies and to building expertise in communication, collaboration and innovation. And we live in a time of rapidly shifting technology, social and political unrest, and burgeoning environmental threats. How are we to grow, thrive and lead? One option is to consider what we can learn and apply from adult development theories and practices for own and others’ intentional development -- and then to deliberately act to foster adult development in individuals and within organizations and communities. There are, of course, many views of what constitutes adult development and how it occurs. In this paper, written to initiate dialogue and discussion, I focus on the perspective that development in adulthood represents a set of substantive qualitative changes that we may undergo moving from dependency to interdependency, from being shaped to a great degree by our environment, to constructing and co-creating thoughts and views. Theories, e.g., by Boydell, Cook-Greuter and Kegan, are related to concepts of individual, workforce and community development, and a number of intentional/deliberate adult development practices in universities and the workplace are described.

  21. Roger Morris (
    Henry Carmichael [1796 to 1862]: Australia’s Pioneer Adult Educator

    Henry Carmichael [1796 - 1862] is widely regarded as the founder of Australian adult education and, more generally, as a leading pioneer colonial educator. His views on both adult and youth education were far-reaching and often controversial. Born in Scotland, he matriculated to St Andrews University in 1814 and graduated with an MA in 1820.Though an ordained Presbyterian Minister he pursued a career as an educator, first in London, where he was influenced by liberal and progressive ideas. In 1830, he was engaged to be a foundation senior master for the proposed Australian College. Carmichael sailed for Sydney in 1831 with the 59 Scottish mechanics, recruited to build the new college. During the voyage Carmichael conducted a most successful series of adult education classes for the mechanics. Once in Sydney, the Governor, Sir Richard Bourke, approached Carmichael to establish a mechanics’ institute. The Sydney Mechanics’ School of Arts [SMSA] was established in 1833 and, with Carmichael as its driving force, soon became most useful adult education institution. Carmichael in 1834 opened his own day school, the Normal Institution, which pioneered teacher education in Australia.

    Later, he left Sydney to farm in the Hunter Valley, where he was also the Government Surveyor. Here he was a pioneer of the wine industry and opened an academy that combined an academic preparation with practical instruction in agriculture. He was instrumental in the establishment of a district public school and took an active role in adult education locally. He maintained his interest in the wider issues of colonial education, often travelling to Sydney to lecture at the SMSA and to participate in debates on educational matters. In 1860, his University awarded him a doctorate [LL.D]
    honoris causa in recognition of his significant and sustained contributions to education in the colony of NSW. He died at sea in 1862, while travelling to the United Kingdom.

  22. Eunkyung Na (
    Are College Instructors Biased toward Latino-Accented English Speakers?

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the implicit language attitudes of college instructors toward Latino-accented English speakers and the effect of gender, teaching experience, and home language background on those attitudes. Participants (N = 93) included college instructors at an urban university in Florida. The researcher created a computer protocol, the multifactor Implicit Association Test (IAT), to measure the associative strength between two targets (Latino- and Standard-accented English) and two attributes (positive and negative attributes). It generated d scores that indicated the preference for the two accented English. A regression equation analysis was conducted to determine the effect of three variables. The auditory multifactor IAT results indicated that the participants in this study held slight preference for the Standard- over Latino-accented English (M = 0.185, SD = 0.426). In other words, the college instructors in this study appeared to have slight bias toward Latino-accented English speakers. Faculty, educational administrators, and students could use the taking of this test as a topic of discussion in faculty development, teaching assistant training, and diversity training in higher education institutions. It potentially would aid in raising the awareness about hidden-yet-present accent bias and prevention of potential prejudice toward Latino-accented English speakers.

  23. Annalisa L. Raymer (
    Experimenting with Theory of Change for Interculturality and Mutual Learning in Adult Education

    ABSTRACT: With a goal of creating conditions wherein college students of adult learning and international adult learners form mutual partnerships for educational mentoring, where to begin? How to take into account the contextual factors and priorities of multiple stakeholders in creating academic courses and learning-focused partnerships while staying focused on a core aspiration: that of fostering meaningful relationships across differences of age, class, country of origin, educational attainment, first language and life course position? Theory of Change is a powerful heuristic for acknowledging significant aspects of context, bigger picture perspectives, and stakeholder agendas. With Theory of Change, curriculum design and program development progresses with a clear-eyed embrace of actual circumstances. When informed by such pragmatics, the act of planning toward aspirational vision gains “robust hopefulness.” An actionable characteristic, robust hopefulness is handy when one comes into a campus setting years after the demise of its Education Department and sets about to reestablish and make relevant the field of adult education. Mapping a change theory also serves as a way to involve stakeholders, creating in this case, a wide-ranging constituency including culture communities, union leadership, campus service workers, academic leaders, administrators, and especially, undergraduate students.

  24. Koichi Sasagawa (
    On Autobiography Learning, 'Jibunshi' in Japan         

    ABSTRACT: Japan has long history of autobiography learning, 'Jibun-shigakusyuu'. It means youth and adults learn and study his/her own history and society by description of 'My History'. It gives learners clear memories of him/herself, clear understanding on his/her life and self-confidence for tomorrow. I want to introduce this Japanese experience to participants of International Pre-conference and compare with similar other countries cases.

  25. Qi Sun (
    Dayong Yuan

    Building a Learning Society via Establishing Learning Cities in China: An Updated Review on Progress and Barriers of Policy, Research, and Practice

    This paper, through the lens of Chinese governmental vision of building a learning society towards Chinese dream in the global context, provides an updated examination on progress and barriers of developing learning cities for global citizenship and sustainable development in China. The fast socio-economic and technological development in China during the past two decades brings noticeable achievements to the nation, yet, unbalanced developments among regions, between urban and rural, and in varied arenas cause issues of varies kinds that create and increase learning needs especially for adult learners. Thus advocating lifelong learning and building a learning community, cities, and then a learning society via adult education and adult learning are at the center of discussion in the National Strategic Plan for educational reform and the mid-long term development. Policies and research at different administrative levels have been conducted for practices during the past two decades. Many cities in China have developed programs of various kinds to provide adult learners learning opportunity through diverse delivery mechanisms and have made great achievement. Yet, issues and barriers are also merged. This session first examines progress that has been made on national policies and research, and then looks at several cities’ current practices as cases for barriers with critical reflection and discourse. Holford and Jarvis’ four models of learning society (2000) will be applied to the study for future direction and improvement.

  26. Qi Sun (
    Haijun Kang (
    Learning from the East: Voices of Well-Established International Adult Education Scholars from the West

    ABSTRACT: Learning from each other has been the goal of international and comparative education. This project calls “we must hear both sides, we must be able to listen to the experience of intelligent life expressed in discourses” (Milligan, Stanfill, Widyanto, & Zhang, 2011, p. 52), Within this context, understanding perceptions of scholars from the West helps create new opportunities for more equal learning, authentic exchange, and collaborative development from the East. This qualitative in-depth interview research aims to explore learning from the East (i.e.,  Asia) through lived stories and perspectives from selected well know Western international adult and higher education scholars who have actively interacted with the East through research, teaching, and service. The project examines their critical reflections to clearly understand what they have learned during the processes, how learning happened, and how what they have learned transformed their own personal and professional development. This research also unfolds their visions on the value/application of and strategies for more equal learning from the East that helps broaden non-western perspective learning and knowing (Merriam &Associates, 2007). Three research questions informed the study: (a) What are lived stories and experiences of learning from the East by selected Western international adult and higher education scholars? (b) How has learning helped enhance their personal and professional development as human beings and scholars in this globalized world? (c) How do they envision future learning between the East and West? Primary findings showcase voices and perspectives on reasons why there is a need of learning from the East while disseminating western knowledge and skills to the East; what has been learned and how the learning helps construct new knowledge and skills for more capable and culturally competent global learners. This qualitative study enables us to seek patterns and deepen our understanding of developing and enhancing a “third space” for more equal and conscious learning and exchanges from the other. This study offers a lens through which to view how authentic exchange and more equal learning from each other may happen and issues and barriers that prevent such authentic exchange and learning. It contributes to theory development and resolves practical issues of unequal flow of knowledge and skills accepted by the field.

  27. Concetta Tino (
    Monica Fedeli (
    The Key-Role of Teachers Played within the Italian School-Work Alternance Programs

    ABSTRACT: The EU through the flagship initiative “ Youth on the Move” promoted by Europe 2020 Strategy (Commission of the European Communities, 2010), invites State Members to improve educational outcomes, at every level of education using an integrated approach, as a way to connect formal and informal learning, theory and practice, because only within the experience, a theory can find its vital and verifiable meaning (Dewey, 1916). The aim is not only to offer students opportunities to develop key competences, but also to reduce early school leaving. The Italian practice of School-Work Alternance (SWA) in secondary schools is a response to European recommendation and part of Work-Related programs, whose aim is to integrate formal and informal approaches, in order to develop students’ soft skills, professional competences, and to allow them to live guidance experiences. This contribution presents the key-role of teachers as responsible of the realization of SWA programs. The paper is part of a wider research and explains the results of 14 interviews aimed at 7 teacher-tutors and 7 teacher–coordinators, in 7 different secondary school, (VET and general education), located in five Northern Italian regions.

  28. Nneka Umezulike (
    Assessment of Open learning Method and Lecture Method in Teaching and learning among 200 level Adult Education Students in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria

    ABSTRACT: The study focused on the assessment of open learning method and lecture method in teaching and learning among 200 level adult education students’ performance. The population of the study comprised of twenty five 200 level adult education students. There was no sampling because of the size of the population. Four Null Hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. One research instrument namely Adult Education Achievement Test (AEAT) was used for data collection. The data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The reliability of the instrument was established using test retest method. 0.82 reliability coefficient was established. The major findings of the study indicated that open learning method was more effective than the lecture method in teaching Adult Education courses in the University; the level of retention was higher when students were taught with open learning method than when they were  taught with lecture method. Based on the findings, it was concluded that open learning method was more effective than the lecture method. Therefore adult education lecturers should consistently make use of open learning method in teaching Adult Education courses in Nigerian Universities.

  29. Susan M. Yelich-Biniecki (
    An Analysis of Europe within Adult Education Literature

    This literature review analyzes how Europe is situated within adult education literature from 2005 to present. Europe as a place and an idea influences and is influenced by adult education as well as historical and current events. The conceptualization of Europe within the dynamic field of international adult education is a necessary realm of investigation in order to gauge trends in scholarly work to inform future inquiry. The literature related to adult education and Europe was analyzed to identify main themes and subthemes. Main themes include Europe situated as a space, a standard, and a voice. Within these themes, the sub-themes of the ideal vs. dominance, insider vs. outsider, and third spaces are discussed. The literature connotes specific centering with regard to context and geography suggesting a need to further explore lived experiences and worldviews, which may be less known or marginalized at the intersection of Europe and adult education.

  30. Jill Zerestky (
    Leslie Ruyle

    Participatory Community Education to Mitigate Human-Elephant Conflict in Botswana

    In rural Botswana, subsistence farming is prevalent but elephants often destroy crops and are then hunted to prevent further damage. Current solutions to prevent elephants from damaging crops are typically low-tech and relatively ineffective. For example, farmers may use chili peppers, which aggravate the elephants, but elephants are intelligent enough to navigate around the chilies. More sophisticated deterrents are needed to protect the elephants and the humans in this region; unfortunately the necessary expertise does not exist within the local community to develop such deterrents. The purpose of the educational program at the center of this study is to create effective, sustainable, culturally appropriate solutions by partnering university engineering students (American and Botswanan) with diverse local participants, including men and women, and a variety in age and social status. During the program, students and locals collaborate to identify specific challenges and develop and implement solutions. The innovation of this project derives from the inclusion of the participatory community education in conjunction with conservation efforts around human-elephant conflict in a rural region of Botswana. In this session, we present findings from the project evaluation, including successes, opportunities for improvement, and possible adaptations to other contexts.