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Compendium: Thesaurus & Glossary
Thesaurus & Glossary (pdf)

Thesaurus and glossary terms provide definitions, examples and explanations for use by educators of adults, from various countries and types of provider organizations; to explain connections with related concepts. This thesaurus was prepared for educator use of the Compendium and related publications. A similar glossary was prepared for authors and editors who created the Compendium, and a copy is included with each of the four Compendium volumes. This open access thesaurus can be especially useful for educators who may not be familiar with terminology in some publications.

Ability: along with similar terms (such as aptitude, experience, capacity, talent, mastery, preparation and acquired proficiency) about type and extent of physical, emotional and mental capability to perform.

Aboriginal: along with similar concepts such as original, indigenous, first nation, and early people; refers to populations with cultures and characteristics of people who long ago lived in an area that was later occupied by people from another culture and language.

Abroad: traveling or living for learning, recreation or work, away from a country of origin or previous residence.

Access: awareness of ways to acquire (and reduce barriers to) opportunities; such as learning activities for adults.

Accountability: being responsible for personal or organizational performance or resources.

Achievement: progress and related assessment procedures and results for comparing indicators of current proficiency or performance, in relation to standards or expectations regarding preparation and progress; estimates of initial and current proficiency (for a participant, teacher, or other stakeholder) which can help evaluate, guide and report progress.

Action: interactions and performance in many adult roles, including efforts by adult learners to apply benefits from participation in educational activities.

Action-research: combination of inquiry and engagement.

Activity: when referring to adult participants, and educational activity is a sequence of program procedures, intended to stimulate, assist, and sustain a learning process and outcomes that can be guided by the learner and other people and materials, to assess and enhance proficiency and actual performance.

Administration: administrator and administering refer to various tasks intended to encourage members of an organization or group to agree on desirable objectives and to contribute to their achievement, including provision of coordination and resources.

Adult: in relation to educational activities for adults, participants are usually persons age 16 or older, with some adult roles related to work, family, voting, drinking, driving, and sometimes completion of full-time preparatory higher education.

Adult education center: location or facility for learning activities by adults.

Adult learning: process of acquiring and retaining knowledge, attitudes and skills.

Advancement: progress in learning, proficiency and performance.

Advocacy: individual and collective efforts in support of an organization, activity or goal.

Aesthetic: related to creativity and the arts, but can refer to similar features of any type of performance or result.

Affective: a domain of living, learning, and performing composed of feelings, needs, values, emotions, inclinations, and attitudes (affective) ; which along with the cognitive(knowledge) and since psychomotor (skill) domain, constitute proficiency and enhanced performance.

Affluence: relative abundance regarding levels of economic wealth, material resources, and financial means, but may include non-material resources and benefits related to level of living and quality of life.

Africa: a global region, specifically a continent between the Mediterranean and the South Pole, and between the Atlantic and Indian oceans, includes many countries, languages and traditions.

Age: one of the lifestages of a person, organization or society; interpreted regarding desirable changes related to experience.

Alignment: a desirable match or connection between several aspects, such as learner and teacher, or provider and potential participants, or provider budget and financial support.

Analysis: typically, explanations about how things work, including describing major parts and how they fit together; usually part of inquiry for research, evaluation, and strategic planning.

Andragogik/Andragogy a label for the scientific discipline of studying lifelong and life wide adult learning and education; including education and learning of adults in various forms, Andragogik  is used as a leader for places of systematic reflection, parallel to other academic leaders ( such as biology, medicine, or physics).

Andragogy: is based on an old European term about a scholarly discipline to help adults learn, and a term popularized by Malcolm Knowles about practitioners who plan and conduct many types of educational activities that are responsive to adult learners.

Application: concepts putting proficiencies, principles or resources to use.

Apprenticeship: a traditional form of individualized teaching and learning, largely related to work, that is similar to coaching, internship, preceptorship, and mentoring.

Approach: approximation or preliminary way to advance by a person, activity or organization.

Art and science: combinations of mastery and proficiencies related to educational activities for adults, such as evidence-based, tested, and organized guidelines, in combination with creative interactions with people and materials that are responsive to the complex interplay of standards and procedures by multiple stakeholders (participants, teachers, coordinators) with diverse characteristics, aspirations, values, and situational influences.

Arts-based: various educational opportunities for adults, for which participation and apprenticeship of creative arts is central.

Asia: a large geographic and population region of the world, west of the Pacific Ocean, east of the Indian Ocean, and north of Australia that includes languages and cultures related to China, Japan, Korea, and India in many countries with various political, economic, and social traditions and connections.

Aspiration: a desire to pursue, create, achieve, or embrace a tangible or intangible goal, experience, or connection that participants and other program stakeholders can have, express, and pursue individually or collectively as a shared vision.

Assessment: many types of analysis of needs, aspirations, accomplishments, and relationships, such as personal discernment, as well as program decisions related to educational needs assessment, program satisfaction, and stakeholder cooperation.

Assist: enable, help or support a person, group or organization to progress toward a goal or objective.

Association: membership organizations, including for educators of adults, which along with experience in formal preparation, can contribute to educator’s proficiency and networking.

Attitudes, a popular synonym for the affective domain that can be estimated, as a preference or feeling about a fact or condition, and may influence perceptions, interpretations, and actions without being outwardly expressed, which can be more influential on actions that knowledge.

Autonomy: a degree of independence by a person, group, or organization based on choice regarding goals and procedures.

Basic education: educational programs for adults that emphasize responsive learning activities such as literacy, numeracy, vocational education, life skills, and completion of secondary education requirements, and sometimes preparation for citizenship, occupations, and higher education.

Beliefs: adult’s earlier experience and reference groups shape the opinions, attitudes and beliefs they used to interpret their world and interactions with other people.

Benefits: results or outcomes of the process in the form of tangible or intangible assistance or contribution to personal or societal well-being for a person, family, group, organization, community, society, or the environment.

Budget: planning and implementing decisions about receipt and expenditure of money and time to achieve intended results and benefits.

Capability: the extent of being able and have one or more mental, physical, and emotional attributes sufficient for desired performance and actual context or setting, with a combination of personal and situational influences.

Capital: can refer to human capital, related to personal resources for learning and living, as well as economic capital for providers and enterprises.

Care: along with terms such as love and empathy, positive feelings about self, others, environment, and objects of interest and concern, in which the purpose, process, and results of interaction can be mutually beneficial.


Cascade: suggests a series of transitions, pools or levels, among which material resources or ideas are shared with each successive level; cascade of learning refers to a sequence of people who share and assist other people to learn, who each model and facilitate exchanges of content and process that continue the cascade.

Case: a specific instance such as a case example for inquiry, or case study for analysis and learning about how things work in a context.

Case scenario: creating or using a simulation for a combination of learners as an example to enhance understanding and proficiency.

Cause: use of one or a combination of influences or assistance to enable a person, group or organization to make progress.:

Change: conditions related to an increase, decrease, or modification of the direction, location, or position of a person, group, organization, community or society that may have a clear source or direction, exchange, benefit, or compensation, but in relation to lifelong learning is sometimes assumed to potentially include desirable directions, outcomes, and compensations.

Character: a general term for desirable personal adult qualities, such as creativity, dependability, honesty, empathy, cooperation, and wisdom; which may be criteria for selection of effective educators, and intended outcomes for participants.

Citizen: typically, one or more adult residents of an area, who may or may not be eligible voters.

City: refers to urban areas such as the large community, district, or metropolitan region that can be the service area for provision of learning activities by adults, such as learning cities.

Class: the concept social class reflects estimates of relative level of socioeconomic status indicators and perceived status in a country.

Coaching leadership: an approach to leadership defined as a way of learning that enables people to resolve challenging problems, improve personal and professional performance, and access latent potential in order to develop and improve talent.

Cognitive: a domain consisting of ways of knowing, including awareness and judgment, which for human learning includes the process of perceiving, interpreting, remembering, accessing, transmitting, and using knowledge for being and functioning in the world (for pre-adult teaching and instruction, mastery, transmission, and acquisition of knowledge is sometimes considered the central function of education).

Collaboration: a form of cooperation and partnership, that  typically includes agreements on mutually beneficial exchanges, and  with a consortium has a more formal and enduring arrangement.

Collection: may refer to acquisition of money or cooperation, but for research and evaluation, includes obtaining data to be analyzed and reported.

Combination: includes process and results of collective contributions by multiple people or groups to achieve a desired result.




Communication: a general concept about interactions among people in which senders and receivers use various means of exchanging information and feelings, such as observation, demonstration, conversation, discussion, body language, public events, and various combinations of media, including radio, television, computer, and social media; from which adults selectively use and interpret based on their values and preferred communication style; these complex communications dynamics occur within learning activities, and in the local, national, and international context.

Community: includes people in a geographic or interest area who are connected regarding intentions, interests, policies, transactions, and exchanges;and for educators of adults, may include community of practice, learning community, digital community, global community, community center, organization development, and community development; each of which depends on personal beliefs about shared values, beneficial exchanges, collective benefits, procedural guidelines, and acceptance of diversity.

Community development: includes an educational process for adult members of any community, typically involving specialists who facilitate processes that include participation by adults or representatives of various aspects of the community; who help analyze community strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats; to gain understanding and support for shared commitment to goals and procedures for progress.

Community based: educational activities and opportunities for adults provided by local organizations, groups and mentors, other than educational institutions; sometimes referred to as non-formal.

Community engaged: process and results for community members who receive assistance from an institution or organization.

Comparative: analysis of similarities and differences to enhance understanding,;which can be used for international, national, or local comparative analysis of educational programs for adults; comparative analysis procedures also occur in related professional fields as scholarly disciplines;which can include revelation of deeper insights about local dynamics.

Compendium: a 2017 international Compendium entitled Mapping the field of adult and continuing education, co-published by the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education and Stylus Publishing; which is an accessible hybrid collection of 80 concise and substantive articles by and for representative practitioners and scholars from various countries and types of provider organizations, that includes a glossary that defines about 250 concepts for educators of adults.

Competency-based: educational programs that emphasize basic standards for teaching and evaluation.

Competition: process among rivals to win exchanges of goods and services by third parties, often by use of marketing concepts and procedures.

Complexity: extent of interrelated connections and influences and details in understanding and using a concept, procedure, or piece of equipment.

Concepts: consist of explanations and examples to help readers understand the nature of the content, which could enhance their performance.

Conclusions: findings, results, and implications from research, evaluation, and program evaluation.

Conference center: residential conference centers host educational activities including room, board, educational facilities and procedures, and program coordination; so that people who participate in the retreat, workshop, Institute or conference focus on their learning to enhance proficiency and performance.

Congruous: agreement, harmony, correspondence, appropriate, suitable.

Connections: readers can use multiple connections to navigate among excerpts as well as by use of keywords, table of contents, and index, to explain procedures and examples that enable readers to enhance their self-directed inquiry of topics related to their experience and interests.

Context: a general term related to a person, organization, or nation as an open system, which refers to broader interactions with societal, political, economic, and demographic influences and interactions.

Continuing professional education: a lifelong education process for professionals to provide learning activities for the continual development and advancement of professional expertise, to assure quality and professional services and benefits.

Continuity: entails stability that may seem desirable or undesirable but has elements of persistence, duration, connections, coherence, and predictability that enables a person, group, organization, community, and society to function when making plans, decisions, choices and investments of time, effort, and resources in relation desirable priorities and goals; for lifelong learning, elements of continuity may be especially important as a stable platform for dealing with major changes.

Continuum: a series or sequence of longitudinal actions, interactions, and relationships that focus on continuity and sometimes progression, such as connections among stages of professional development; or annual stages of external funding of a provider organization.

Cooperation: includes interactions among people, groups, organizations, or associations that lead to satisfactory and continued relationships.

Coordination: occurs when program coordinators and organizers help adults learn, along with attracting and sustaining participants, teachers, and resources.

Counseling: entails establishing rapport, diagnosis of symptoms and nature of concerns, and assisting people in a learner, protégé, or client role to understand and deal with an area of concern, on an individual or group basis.

Course: is a way of organizing content and teaching/learning activities as a sequence of units or parts; and may include a record of participation and evidence from assessment.

Creativity: the ability and process of artistic, scientific, and interpersonal contributions that have value through individual and collective originality and innovation that sometimes entails patent or copyright protection for creative people and the innovative process; for educators of adults and collective efforts from the arts and sciences by various helping professions, contributions can apply to adult learners, people who help them learn, educational materials, and program stakeholders generally.

Criteria: can be indicators of progress in planning and accomplishing an activity and program evaluation.

Critical perspective: use of critical thinking to analyze societal influences instead of taking them for granted, and to advocate reform if warranted.

Culture: a combination of beliefs, practices, results, and relationships shared among members of the group, program, family, workplace, community, association, nation, civilization, and subcultures; the term (cultural) can apply to organizations such as libraries and museums that provide resources and assistance.

Current: refers to recent or near future time for an event, activity, process, publication, encounter, arrangement, equipment or organization.

Data: facts, figures, and other information that can be specified for analysis and reports, research, and evaluation as a basis for conclusions and recommendations.

Decisions: important choices, commitments, and plans by educators of adults; which can entail connections among concepts.

Decolonization: a process of withdrawing or overthrowing a condition of being colonized.

Department: a part of a larger organization, which typically includes related purposes, personnel and practices.

Design: a general to very detailed plan, pattern, or template to guide the creation of a work of art, piece of equipment, activity, or educational program.

Development: an evolving process and result of gradual growth, change, extensions, differentiation, and modification to enhance capacity to make manifest emerging opportunities; which could apply to physical, mental, attitudinal, and societal characteristics of any person including stakeholders for educational programs for adults; because of variation regarding circumstances, rules, opportunities, deterrents, relationships, values, and relative priorities; lifecycle process of growth and decline can include transitions and functioning and outlook; similar influences and stages can occur for persons, families, groups, organizations, communities, and societies.

Digital: computer-based technology and communication methods; electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes data.

Disability: any physical, emotional, mental, or social limitations that can impair or restrict a person’s capability of performance, which may depend on personal and organizational efforts to minimize restrictions.

Discipline: regarding learning and education, refers to structure and mastery in the field of study, practice, and advancement.

Discrepancy: can refer to a gap between current and desired proficiency or performance.

Discrimination: once meant making accurate informed distinctions, but now usually refers to negative value judgments typically without explicit criteria.

Distance: refers to flexible access and ways to help adults learn at various times and locations, including assistance with educational procedures, content mastery, teaching and learning activities, and evaluation feedback.

District: refers to a local area in which educational opportunities are available, sometimes defined as a service area.

Diverse: people, groups, communities, and society differ in various ways regarding forms or characteristics, and for adult learning opportunities, this includes each learner’s many characteristics that influence the readiness, participation, progress, satisfaction, and uses of the process that results in outcomes of learning activities; diversity includes group and population characteristics; variations among educators of adults from various countries who reflect many types of organizations that help provide learning opportunities for adults, who vary in experience, abilities, and interests.

Economic: use of money or the equivalent for exchange of property, goods, and services in which economic indicators monitor trends and extent of financial exchanges for a family, organization, nation state, or confederation (such as the European Union).

Educator (s): practitioners and scholars who help plan, conduct, administer, and evaluate learning activities; who constitute educators of adults.

Effect: consequence or outcomes that reflect one or usually multiple influences that contribute to the results.

Elders: similar to seniors and third age, includes older men and women in the family, community, or organization who have experience and values desired by younger people, related to roles and relationships that entail advising, judging, and inspiring.

 e-Leadership: via electronic media is particularly important during the information age, which engages increasing numbers of people in the application of technology as a routine aspect of their work or other responsibilities.

Emergencies: events or time periods such as economic webs, depression, war or severe weather; can shift priorities to deal with the dislocations and changing media attention to public and private funding, volunteer contributions, and legislation; and away from current priorities to address the emergency, and shift them toward preparation to reduce the effects of future emergencies.

Empathy: understanding, attitudes, and caring about the feelings and conditions of others.

Employment: commitment to engage someone for an activity in exchange for compensation.

Empower: is to help people to become more effective and use their abilities.

Engineer: occupation to use applied science concepts and procedures to accomplish technical and other tasks.

Engage: active participation, exchanges, and interactions with other people or groups, which can result in mutually beneficial exchanges.

Enterprise: a general term for various types of public or private organizations, such as government agency, military installation, business organization, or industrial plant; in which human resource development staff and departments provide learning activities for staff members, and to collaborate with other provider organizations.

Environment: the aggregate of natural, climactic, social and cultural conditions that influence life in the region, community, organization, and activity.

ERIC: an acronym for the system of Educational Resources Information Centers that included adult and continuing education content in a clearinghouse that was located at Syracuse University, Northern Illinois University, and then Ohio State University; with documents available through libraries.

Ethics: formulation and use of assistance from  moral values and principles of conduct by persons or groups; which  can serve as content for learning activities, and can guide procedures for provider organizations.

Evaluation: judging and assessing the worth of something; for evaluation of educational programs for adults; includes explicit criteria and other standards of evaluation procedures.

Events: a general term for related activities, that include aspects of educational procedures and outcomes.

Evidence: one basis for decisions and helping professional fields of practice, including use of tested or organized knowledge as a basis for planning and evaluating performance; and as a basis for program evaluation and conclusions; and from professional experience regarding explaining how things work in context.

Excellence: a concept and standard for judging performance that includes both process and results for participants, teachers, coordinators, programs, and providers.

Exchange: transfer of values, goods, or services among persons, groups, organizations, or providers; entails cooperation, collaboration, and interactions in educational activities in various adult role relationships, which can be beneficial exchanges, with the benefits depending on the perception of the people engaged in the exchanges; the effect of exchanges can be complementary, in which each member learns and benefits.

Experience: various types of role performance and related plans, decisions and rehearsals that learning activities are intended to enhance, related to participants and other educational program stakeholders who have engaged in previous, current, and future activities; individually, cooperatively, or in community; related to experiential learning.

Explanation: brief and substantive analysis and report of major systemic features and relationships (logic model) that characterizes a program, contribution, resource, policy, process, outcome, or influence; and therefore that helps program stakeholders understand how things work, which can contribute to stakeholder interest, cooperation, contributions, and program excellence.

Extension: a traditional term for continuing higher education programs and public service activities that are provided at times and locations that make them accessible to adult part-time students in contrast to on-campus courses for full-time students.

Family: a basic social unit of related people whose shared experience and interactions can benefit themselves, their community, and society, but can become dysfunctional.

Family stage: a phase of the adult lifecycle which is influenced by preceding stages and is connected to members at other stages including seven generations.

Feedback: when people and organization members receive information about the process and results of their activity that they can use for plans, adjustments, activities, and decisions; such feedback in the teaching/learning transaction helps the teacher (coordinator, provider, evaluator) modify the learning activities; including positive feedback which is especially important for positive reinforcement and guidance for participant progress and assistance.

Feelings: emotions, attitudes, needs, and preferences that are combined with other parts of the affective domain, which guides people’s impulses and reactions such as love, anger, hatred, pleasure, resentment, and joy; educators of adults can estimate learner’s feelings through body language, expression, actions, and intentions, as guides for use of encouragement, mentoring, procedures, and materials to facilitate participant progress, benefits, and improved performance.

Feminist: attitudes, actions, and influences on behalf of recognition, right activities, and relationships pertaining to equality of the sexes.

Foundation: private philanthropic foundations such as: Carnegie, Ford, Kellogg and Mott have funded proposals on behalf of educators of adults to assist with innovative projects to enhance educational opportunities for adults.

 Funding: for provider organizations, includes resources and extent of money or similar financial support for educational programs or contributions.

Future: oriented concepts emphasize past trends, analysis, decisions, and forecasts that contribute to choices and actions that occur in later years.

Gender: refers to biological and orientation aspects of males and females

Global: international connections and influences on ideas, programs, environment, culture, media, economic, and political systems.

Group: small groups of 2-20 members form, interact, cooperate, reach agreements, and serve as reference groups for exchange of meaning (opinions, attitudes, beliefs) among members; such as families, close friends, working groups, and learning sessions.

Governance: in contrast to ruling (which can be despotic or arbitrary),  it is a desirable process of having policy influences over priorities and procedures of an organization that could be good for individuals and the collective.

Guide: various individualized ways of assisting adults regarding their exploration, inquiry, learning, discovery, growth, rehabilitation, recovery, mastery, proficiency, and performance.

Health: can refer broadly to conditions of a person, group, organization, ecosystem, nation, or region; ranging from robust to damaged which reflect positive influences such as: prudent conservation, prevention, development, judgment, balance, aspiration, wisdom, rest, and relaxation; as well as negative influences such as: wasteful, degradation, disease, illness, injury, neglect, and aggression.

Helping professions: professions and  occupations avocations that emphasize nurturing and assistance, such as education, health, library, and counseling; that contribute to a cascade of learning where inquiry and learning that contributes to the effectiveness of a helping professional becomes a desirable central quality for the people who benefit and are served, such as students, patients, and clients.

Higher education: various colleges and universities, along with other postsecondary educational institutions.

Histories: educators of adults and their provider organizations and professional associations/journals, typically preserve only fragmentary documents; so educators depend on articles and courses to identify very limited sources until  current overviews are available; such as bibliographic essays.

History: the methods, processes, results, and reports from use of procedures, concepts, records, analysis, synthesis, cross validation, and interpretation that help explain past trends, influences, and results; related to a person, group, organization, community or professional field.

Holistic: a comprehensive concept that includes consideration of the whole as more than the sum of the parts of a person, group, organization, nation, or world.

Humanities: various scholarly fields such as language, literature, art, music, history, and philosophy enable teachers and students to study and share understanding and appreciation that includes subjective and creative aspects of human activities, interactions, and accomplishments relevant to educators of adults.

Identity: usually refers to a person’s sense of self, such as a unity with persistence of personality that reflects multiple personal and situational influences on participants, who sometimes report that a more positive sense of self (such as self-confidence or direction) was a major benefit of educational participation.

 Impaired; some part of a person that has been limited due to either a condition at birth or an injury.

Implications suggested conclusions based on analysis and proposed applications.

Inclusive: people or activities that are part of a broader category.

Independence: includes options for people or activities.

Indicator: usually a brief amount of information that is relatively easy to monitor as an estimate of complex trends in relationships, such as economic and social indicators.

Indigenous: people and their traditions from an area where they were first people before their ancestors were displaced.

Influences: regarding personal and organizational performance, typically reflect combinations of personal and situational influences to be understood and addressed.

Informal: the category of adult learning activities where participants decide about arrangements without a provider organization

information seeking: various ways in which people pay attention and inquire; the extent and content of information seeking reflects their concerns; types of information seeking include: observation, conversation, electronic media, and reading; with word-of-mouth a widespread means and the use of reading positively associated with educational level.

Initiatives: proposals and activities by innovators who seek to change concepts and practices.

Inquiry: a way to creatively use scholarly disciplines to discover new insights from each discipline (history, philosophy, sociology, psychology, political science, economics), with use of theoretical, conceptual, and experimental procedures to answer questions; educators of adults can use both multidisciplinary inquiry and findings from organized knowledge; program stakeholders can use research and evaluation concepts about transcendent performance.

Interactive: regarding discussion groups, usually includes informal group activities in which members interact and the process can be enhanced by leader guidance and member experience and interactions. Interests: reflect attitudes and concerns of adults based on their past experience and awareness of opportunities which influence their engagement and learning.

Interpretation: part of research, evaluation, counseling, and other professional assistance after pertinent information has been collected and analyzed for purpose of conclusions and recommendations.

Interprofessional: regarding learning and performance, occurs when members of two or more professions can collaborate to provide coordinated assistance to the person being served.

Interview: a way to acquire information from people for purposes of mentoring, teaching, planning, evaluation, research, and administration.

Issues: usually considered important topics about which there are various perspectives that deserve consideration, analysis, reflection, and action.

Iterative: a series of successive approximations for a rationale procedure, with feedback to enhance ongoing alignment and progress.

Journals: periodic publications by associations and publishers with content, format, and access that is aligned with the interests and capabilities of readers and subscribers.

Know: along with knowing and knowledge, part of the cognitive domain based on observation, analysis, validation, and reflection; in contrast to the affective domain composed of attitudes, emotions, and feelings, and the psychomotor domain focused on skills and performance.

Latin America: a region in the southern and western hemisphere composed of Central and South America between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans; which includes distinctive countries, cultures, languages, and social, economic, political systems.

Leader: along with lead, leadership, and leading; a process that can be applied to a teacher, coordinator, or other stakeholder who helps achieve progress with and through other people by encouraging them to contribute to the achievement of shared goals.

Learning informally: occurs from observation, conversation, and casual media use everywhere throughout life; formal learning occurs in credit-related programs conducted by faculty and others in higher education and other learning contexts; non-formal learning can include other organized learning activities such as human resource development activity in enterprises, learning activities in community agencies, associations, e-learning programs, and self-directed learning projects; typical ingredients include: objectives, content, process, practice, and feedback; rationales for helping adults learn how to learn have emphasized decisions by participants.

Library: a public or private organization or independent institution for acquisition, preservation, organization and circulation of print and digital books and periodicals and other materials, to people who have access, through cooperation among related library systems and archives.

Lifelong: related to learning, usually refers to all types of formal, non-formal and informal learning and educational activities for adults.

Link: connections between adult learning activities and decisions that typically entail multiple relevant concepts and topics; with many potential links to help readers use self-directed inquiry to discover useful connections.

Literacy: part of basic education for adults and adult functional literacy includes the ability to observe, listen, speak, read, and write regarding language, numeracy, and basic tasks related to family, health, work, finance, and citizenship.

Longitudinal: an ongoing activity that can be assessed with time series data for planning, resources, evaluation, and counseling purposes

Map: along with mapping, portrays connections among topics of interest to guide travelers to an unfamiliar domain; creating, portraying, or using roadmap content that entails experience, study, and understanding of a domain of interest to guide decisions about connections; to guide discovery of connections on topics relevant to their program decisions.

Market: an economic concept about exchanges of value such as connections, communication, and cooperation between an educational program for adults and potential participants.

Mastery: effective performance entails intent, time, practice, feedback, persistence, and encouragement to achieve a satisfactory level of ability; expert levels may require years of preparation.

Media: a general term that refers to communication forms such as print, radio, films, television, computers, and social media.

Members: people connected with an association, enterprise, organization, or group; some of whom share an interest as participants in learning activities.

Memory: storage, retention, recall, and reconstruction of knowledge, attitudes and skills.

Mentoring: a personalized way of helping adults learn about various roles and interests; typical features related to a mentor or coach include voluntary agreements on arrangements for assistance, mentor provision of guidance and encouragement, and focus on protégé/mentee performance.

Methods: available to educators of adults and the adult learners they assist, includes the great variety of teaching and learning methods available to select and sequence types of learning activities that fit program content and objectives along with participant experiences and aspirations.

Micro-aggressions:  such as differences regarding race, gender, sexual orientation, culture, and professional role) which can negatively impact workplace operations.

Middle East: a diverse region between Africa, Mediterranean, Europe, India, and Russia that includes various countries, traditions, and systems along with long disputed borders of countries.

Millennials: individuals born between 1982 and 2003.

Mixed economy: a combination of public and private organizations and enterprises; which influences policies and procedures for production, consumption, regulation, finance, and coordination.

Model: includes many forms of electronic, two and three dimensional simplified portrayals of more complex objects, concepts, relationships of people and ecosystems that can be very effective simulations for learning purposes.

Movement: efforts by adults to influence policies and social arrangements in an area by demonstrating the extent of support for desired changes; educators of adults sometimes assist with movements that are aligned with provider goals regarding desirable social change.

Multicultural: a concept that includes interactions among people who collectively may have two or more cultural traditions that can lead to learning and change, which for some may be an educational objective.

Multidisciplinary: perspectives and conclusions result from a combination of methods, conclusions, and implications for multiple scholarly fields; especially related to education of adults, such as: anthropology, sociology, economics, history, philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, demography, and geography.

Multigenerational: interaction and learning among people from two or more generations, and analysis of related trends and influences.

Narrative: may occur as an oral or written hybrid message, that might be published or only shared among members of a group.

Nature: the global context of atmosphere, water, minerals, plants, and animals related to human activities.

Needs: a concept used by educators of adults to explain motives by categorizing and characterizing a combination of personal and situational conditions that are important to adults, such as needs for achievement, affiliation, or intimacy; educators of adults also assess adult’s educational needs and preferences to guide provision of responsive learning activities.

Networking: being with other people with similar interests to enhance careers and relate to the purposes of the provider program; it is one reason program participants attend learning groups.

Non-formal: various types of adult learning activities, except formal (continuing higher education programs) and informal (spontaneous learning activities that adults engage in without a provider organization). Non-formal activities by enterprises and associations are major examples.

Nonprofit: groups and organizations with service and educational purposes often depend on volunteers and contributions

North America: a region in the Western Hemisphere between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans that includes United States and Canada.

Objectives: specified intended outcomes from learning activities that can include both content and ways in which the learner can demonstrate progress at the level of mastery; for some adult learning activities related to performance,

Obtain: a general term regarding acquisition of cooperation from people, use of facilities, and purchase of materials and equipment.

Older: refers to relative chronological age of a person or category of people, compared with other people, usually the general population or people in the country or region.

Online: regarding distance and technology-based education, use of electronic or computer connections and content for one or more adult learners, instructor, and other participants.

Opportunities: for adult learning can result from leadership by effective educators of adults who understand systemic relationships among acquisition of people and resources, process of teaching and coordination, outcomes, results, and feedback regarding relationships within an organization and societal context.

Oppression: a condition of people who are denied basic human rights and other freedoms.

Oral: communication, traditions, and culture that depend heavily on speaking, listening, remembering, and observing (in contrast to extensive use of reading and writing by more formally educated adults), is a distinguishing feature of ancient civilizations; oral communication is also central for a substantial portion of American adults who seldom read but depend mainly on word-of-mouth and electronic media for information to guide their decisions.

Organization: a general term for the people, procedures and purposes related to the general mission of a provider organization such as a government or enterprise, educational or religious institution or a community agency.

Organizational change: the result and process of continuity and change of an organization over time, usually including attention to influences, results, and consequences.

Organizational consultant: an advisor about educational activity,  who helps organization members improve organizational functioning.

Outcomes: in adult learning activities, outcomes take various forms and tend to be associated withcumulative lifelong connections to related activities, and sometimes have results beyond achieving program objectives; examples of program outcomes include: participants who discovered new opportunities, benefits for people in roles related to it participant, and connections with other members of an organization or community.

Outreach: may refer to connections between higher education institutions and other organizations and adults in their service area.

Participant: along with participation and participatory, usually refers to diverse adults as they engage in intentional learning activities; they often want to use enhanced capabilities and their family, local organization, occupation, and community; participation rates are highest for adults during young adulthood when they are experiencing multiple role changes, and for those who have higher educational levels, greater affluence, or interactions with other adult learners, and who often have higher aspirations.

Partner: two or more people and sometimes related groups or organizations, who agreed to cooperate for a shared purpose, and usually expectations of beneficial exchange and results.

Past: a general reference to events, activities, and contributions prior to a present time; for a person, group, organization, association, country or world.

Performance: can be enhanced by learning activities related to; life-long, life-wide, and life-deep learning activities can combine learning and performance for a more coherent life in society and the environment, and for more unified sense of self and personal values; assessment of performance include situational expectations, demands and constraints, personal commitments, and capability to include connections beyond personal achievements that are affected by external influences.

Personal: a singular adult, rather than a group, organization, or collective.

Perspective: a point of view, rationale, or interpretation of a person or organization of colleagues or work associates.

Plan: along with planning, curriculum plan, program planning; entails making decisions about goals and procedures to guide educational and administrative activities and priorities, including cooperation and resources.

Policy: sources may include legislation or more formal agreements that guide decisions by provider organizations and educators.

Popular: referring to culture, interesst, and activities such as communication and entertainment available to the general public.

Power: economic, political, institutional, collective, and charismatic sources that influence policies, priorities, resource allocations, and decisions; including organizational and legal charters and bylaws that may be designed to limit external interference.

Praxis: a concept about the dynamic interactions that can occur among three elements of a learning experience: dialogue, reflection, and action; praxis can be initiated by a teacher, participant, external influences, or an issue; and it can be connected with concerns about personal, organizational, and social change.

Priority: position or setting, includes ranking of importance based on values and previous experience to guide attention to first things first; for educators of adults, values clarification, ranking criteria, and allocation of resources, are examples of setting and using priorities for policymaking and decision-making.

Privilege: having or enjoying one or more benefits because of characteristics, status, or category. Problem solving: solving a problem includes understanding a problem or uncertainty, consideration of alternative solutions, selection and trial of the preferred solution.

Process: a general concept about activities, interactions, and materials for using imputs to achieve outcomes; systemic models for proposals, plans, programs, implementation, and evaluation, typically include inputs, process, intended and actual outcomes, contexts, and feedback.

Profession: along with professionalization and professional development, includes characteristics, privileges, and responsibilities of occupations that entail substantial preparation and related features of a continuum of career long education and enhancement for performance due to changing conditions and expectations.

Professional development: learning and educational activities to enhance proficiency and performance for educators of adults and members of related professions.

Professor: a title for college and university faculty members, teachers and scholars.

Proficiency: along with proficiencies, entails a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes; which can contribute to excellence and improved performance during and beyond participation in educational activity, which could be assessed regarding levels (minimal, optimal, maximal) in contrast to a similar concept in preparatory education of minimal or basic competency.

Program: a term or concept used by educators of adults about planning, conducting, and evaluating a series of intentional learning activities; for transparent, collaborative, beneficial program relationships among stakeholders, which can contribute to learning and enhanced performance by each stakeholder.

Project: a general term regarding activity that includes: proposal, plan, implementation, ongoing evaluation feedback and use, outcomes, and reporting which can focus on teaching, learning, provider organizational development, collaboration, or pilot efforts; sometimes characterized as an iterative process of successive approximations.

Proposal: a request for cooperation and support.

Protégé: a learner assisted by a mentor, master, or coach.

Provider: organizations, groups, associations, or people with commitment, resources, and image are central to planning conducting and arranging for program resources and activities of various providers of educational opportunities for adults.

Provider culture: the interpersonal culture among members of a group or organization that provides learning opportunities for adults.

Proactive: a general style of educators that focuses on issues and ways to stimulate innovation and change.

Publication: in various print and electronic forms (such as reports, newsletters, journals, books, and handbooks) that can enhance educator’s effectiveness and their awareness and use of learning materials to benefit adult participants and the educators own performance

Quality: a term used to define desirable features of performance, educational activities, and life so that learning opportunities can provide ways to encourage participants to analyze and reflect on those high-quality features that are deemed desirable.

Reasons: the actions and explanations that people give to characterize their views and preferences; educators of adults sometimes ask potential or actual program participants why they would or actually do engage in learning activities; there are also more productive ways to estimate reasons and the intent to act.

Reciprocal: an exchange in which benefits can be complementary.

Recognition: takes many forms to acknowledge or celebrate contributions, performance, and accomplishments of participants, stakeholders, benefactors, and the people who help adults learn and provide program leadership.

Region: the area within a country, the community area of a large city, a number of adjacent countries, or a continent. Relevance: perceived connections between the interest of a person or an organization’s potential images, ideas, contributions, or activities.

Renewal: can apply to people, relationships, or organizations that can enhance their function as a result of commitment and assistance such as analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT).

Report: oral or written information about an activity, performance, progress, project, research, or evaluation analysis.

Research: a general term for many specific forms of inquiry and action research by scholars and practitioners designed to review and understand concepts and procedures that help answer and explain questions of interest; sources of information may include other people, library and archival collections of print and electronic materials, general procedures to search pertinent databases, and experimental studies to analyze quantitative data, or detailed comparative analysis of qualitative case examples.

Resources: a general category of ingredients that includes: people, ideas, assistance, funding, facilities use, collaboration, and voluntary contributions; program coordinators and administrators may use systemic models that include acquisition and allocation of resources for throughput processes, including retention, contribute to outcomes and feedback regarding such transactions in the program context.

Responsibility: being dependable and accountable regarding commitments and expectations related to resources, preparation, activities, people, collaboration, reporting, and goal achievements; can be applied to participants, teachers, coordinators, and administrators; related to educational activities in the provider organization.

Responsive: taking into account stakeholder experience, preferences, conditions, and influences, which is especially important for sustained cooperation by participants.

Revision: a process or outcome to achieve change for improvement purposes.

Roles: basic concept about performance and expectations associated with interactions such as family, work, friends, and community.

Scaffolding: a template with major features of a learning task, that can facilitate learner progress, such as a metaphor or simulation.

Scenario: outline of the main ideas for a program that can guide more detail planning by stakeholders.

Self-direction: occurs for some learning and activities for adults that emphasize the importance of participants who have a major responsibility to help guide selection of objectives, interpretation of content, reflection on assumptions, engagement and learning activities, and evaluation of progress.

Self-efficacy: the concept that an adult sense of self includes understanding the extent and ways in which one can influence features of one’s life and situation and make a difference in how things work.

Senior: similar to retirees, senior citizens, older adults, and elders.

Sequential: a method for ordering consecutive steps in a process likely to achieve desirable results; such as planning and exploiting progress for a program participant or for an entire program.

Situational: local influences on educational activity, such as violent weather conditions, or improved employment opportunities.

Skills: a psychomotor domain and the taxonomy of educational objectives related to physical performance, but sometimes skill is used as a synonym of performance in contrast to knowledge, proficiency and performance, that are the results of enhance skills combined with knowledge and attitudes; there are various ways to demonstrate, estimated, and assess learners current and potential skills.

Social justice: equitable procedures that result in similar opportunities and treatment regardless of personal characteristics.

Societal: refers to interdependent connections among various community members based on shared interests.

Solution: an action or explanation likely to resolve a problem, settle a dispute, or lead to an agreement.

Southern African Development (SADC): countries identified as representative both geographically and politically of southern Africa; the countries include: Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe; languages include English (spoken in the majority of the countries) French and Portuguese.

Spectrum: an array of differences that emphasize positive features of variety.

Staff development: learning activities for members of enterprises and organizations.

Stages: a developmental concept in fields such as human development, health recovery, and urban planning, about a sequence of stages for progress in which readiness and preparation, and each step helps prerpares for success during subsequent steps.

Stakeholders: people in various roles associated with planning, conducting, and assisting learning opportunities for adults, including adult participants, program teachers and coordinators, evaluators, provider organization administrators, funders, and policymakers.

STEM: an acronym for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics; that share a scientific knowledge base, and a shared commitment to increase educational preparation of underrepresented students and instructors.

Stereotypes: simplified and incomplete cognitive schemas that characterize a person, group, organization, or society that can be accurate, distorted, or false; one potential benefit of lifelong learning is to help participants replace false stereotypes with more accurate and constructive characterizations.

Stigma: a negative stereotype or image that serves to discredit a person or organization.

Strategic planning: a process for developing, implementing, and evaluating long-term (3-10 year) plans for improving organizational performance; typically includes stakeholders related to an educational program, provider organizations, a process of planning that entails analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats; and uses the engagement process and conclusions to enhance the program.

Structural: related to tangible features of a person (biological systems), group (policy, power), organization (bylaws, finances); compared with less tangible features such as history, traditions, preferences.

Substantive: referring to ideas, organized explanations that include evidence, relevance, and rationale.

Support: a general concept that includes contributions of money and time by volunteers.

SWOT: an acronym for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for strategic planning purposes.

Systemic: referring to models, including logic models, relationships among inputs of resources, process, or throughputs; intended and actual outcomes; context, and feedback that together contribute to understanding of such relationships to good planning, decisions, improvements, evaluation, and results.

Taxonomy: usually hierarchically organized with a broader category defined and explained by the contents of subcategories, which enables readers to use their experience and interest to explore connections among topics that are relevant to their local programs, in part by navigating among publications.

Teachers: people engaged in teaching to help adults learn (teach), in organizations, large and small groups, and individually; including use of technology, who are referred to as instructors, guides, presenters, professors, and mentors.

Team: people interacting on behalf of a shared purpose.

Technology: can be used by educators of adults and in the media: various forms including computers, educational materials, models, and simulations; to enhance learning, access, practice, and improved performance.

Third-age: refers to older adults during their third age of life (after their youth and adulthood who in post parental retirement and greater longevity have opportunities for a distinctive lifestyle and potential personal and societal benefits.

Topic: usually a collection of related concepts, examples, influences, and procedures that serve as units of study or selection of print or electronic publications or an aspect of a presentation or discussion.

Transaction: examples of exchanges of special interest to educators of adults include: mutually beneficial exchange between a mentor and protégé, teaching learning transaction, and beneficial organizational collaboration; especially for cooperation by stakeholders from various countries and types of provider organizations; use of comparative analysis can contribute to cooperation and sustainability of such partnerships.

Transactional leader: use relationship with followers based on exchange involving the leader giving followers what they want in return for the attainment of prescribed goals.

Transcendent: understanding and performance by educators of adults based on evidence and practice-based proficiencies that are beyond routine performance, limited personal experience, at perceptions.

Transformation: types of educational activities for adults that emphasize consciousness-raising regarding the extent and ways in which societal influences help shape an adult’s understanding and expectations.

Transformational leader: relationships with followers includes commitment and motivation.

Transition: shift from one stage to the next.

Trend: a way of expressing a longitudinal series of events, activities and interpretations that enhance understanding of the relationships and applications, compared with only knowing about the separate parts of the series; educators can use trends to explain adult development, organizational changes, and societal influences, for both understanding and prediction.

Understanding: personal comprehension, agreement among people, was a basis for agreement to cooperate.

University: a higher education institution that typically includes undergraduate and graduate degree programs and faculty research, two years community colleges also part of post-secondary higher education; with adult part-time students now a majority of higher education enrollments in the United States.

Urban the urban context represents social environmental situations that inform the lived experience of individuals, groups, and communities that reside in densely populated cities and surrounding areas; these everyday experiences differ for adult learners based on their socio-demographic characteristics, income and socioeconomic standing, occupation, and other factors.

Use: refers to any adult learner whose reasons for participating in educational activities include increasing use of enhanced proficiency for enhanced performance.

Utopian: models of communities are between utopian and dystopian models because the utopian perspective recognizes human flaws and aspirations and emphasizes societal changes to gradually enhance personal and social well-being, quality of life and relationships, prudent use of resources, and a healthy ecosystem.

Value: a relative ranking of qualities that can reflect multiple unexamined or expressed positive and negative values for which reflection and discernment can help clarify, analyze, and guide conflict resolution efforts, and potentially contribute to greater understanding of a personal or collective hierarchy of values to guide goal setting, decisions, and actions.

Variety: refers to great diversity among adults and program participants; which is important for teachers and coordinators to recognize and respond to.

Virtual reality: the use of technology to allow for interactions, simulations, and additional experiences at a distance.

Vision: suggest a future oriented, creative, or positive perspective that when shared, can inspire collective efforts to achieve a common goal; an attractive vision of future directions for lifelong learning can be an important feature of shared leadership by educators of adults in each stakeholder role.

Vocation: a commitment to important values and benefits that may or may not coincide with an occupation that may change a number of times during an adult’s work-life; a related meaning of vocational education emphasizes skill performance in working-class occupations.

Voluntary: along with volunteer work contributions to associations, enterprises, and organizations entail adults choosing to use their time and abilities for a purpose, other than as a requirement for paid work.

Webinar: a seminar experience that can be provided for participants electronically with use of computer technology and related communications.

Well-being: a general concept about components of quality of life such as health, prosperity, and happiness.

Wellness: emphasizes prevention and avoiding illness and poor health.

Wisdom: a perspective on people and society that emphasizes insight, use of accumulated philosophical and scientific knowledge, discernment of inequalities and relationships, sound judgment, importance of values, in consideration of potential results and byproducts from alternative courses of action.

Women: adult females.

Work: accomplishing beneficial and productive tasks as a volunteer, or as a source of income, which is characteristic of work in a family, enterprise, or association.

Workplace: an arrangement and location for work and employment, which with technology and some occupations, may occur at remote or varied locations.

Workshop: a method of teaching and learning in which adult participants and the people who help them engage in planning, conducting, and evaluating the activity.

Written: referring to communication and use of text-based language it is a potential participant proficiency, in contrast for dependence on oral communication; which is a major influence on various ways of initiating and sustaining participation by some adults and basic education; regarding occupation and communication, also includes participation by adults who may be literate but depend mainly on oral communication.







































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